The unique barbary macaques are the only primates, occurring north of the Sahara in Africa. In addition, these animals are the only macaques, found outside of Asia. As highly adaptable creatures, they are capable of surviving in various environments and temperatures, from fir and mixed oak forests to sheer cliffs. Moreover, the Barbary macaques are among the few monkeys, inhabiting cold and snowy regions. They are communal foragers, looking for food both terrestrially and in trees. These diurnal primates are generally active during the daytime hours, sleeping at night in single-sex clusters of 2 – 3 macaques. These troops contain individuals of both sexes with equal proportions. Both males and females have their separate hierarchies. Females form strictly matrilineal hierarchies, where each individual is specifically ranked. Meanwhile, the social system of males is somewhat looser. In addition, males of this species are less aggressive than females. Mutual grooming is a common activity in these primates. It’s an important part of their life, which helps remove parasites and reduce stress, as well as enhances interpersonal relationships between members of a group. About half of all communication between conspecifics contains aggressive behavior. However, the Barbary macaques are more peaceful animals, than most primates.